IMV imaging is proud of all the students of veterinary medicine who applied to our Easi Money Scholarship opportunity.
2019 marked the first year of Easi Money. Veterinary students applied to the scholarship by collecting ultrasound images and videos on and Easi-Scan:Go, then submitting their materials for review.
After careful consideration, IMV imaging proudly announces the recipients of the Easi Money scholarship.
Congratulations, Karalyn Lonngren, Kathryn Osborne, and Samantha Landry, the recipients of the 2019 Easi Money scholarship! See their submissions below.
It is a beautiful morning in Maine but promises to soon be hot as the day lengthens. I am standing in a dark cow barn with an Easi-Scan:Go wireless ultrasound all fired up and ready to go. My classmate, Mike, stands nearby with my cellphone ready to help me capture any photos that I would like to save while ultrasounding. I love how light the base of the ultrasound is because I can easily clip it to my shoulder sleeve and don’t even notice it hanging there. As I attempt to ultrasound the first few cows, I create some pretty awkward and disjointed videos, since this is my third time ever trying to trans- rectally ultrasound cows. I have been practicing my palpation skills for a while, so I feel like I start progressing early on. The first few images I capture are fairly simple, such as a cross-section of a fetus and a few more shaky videos. The next day we have another short herd check, but mostly I have either open cows or 130+ day cows. I measure a placentome and attempt to view ovaries, which is fairly difficult since I am still trying to get used to holding the probe in my hand. But I find the follicular cyst the vet ahead of me mentions and view a CL on another ovary. The next day we go to another herd check. Here I get to try my hand at several 60-80 day pregnancies and capture videos of two heifer calves, one viewing a calf longitudinally and another calf horizontally. I have a long way to go in developing my ultrasounding skills, but I am very happy with the experience I’ve gained during these last three days.
With the Easi-Scan:Go, I traveled with veterinarians from Millerstown Veterinary Associates in Millerstown, Pennsylvania. All of the dairy operations that I visited check cows three times in their pregnancy; 30 days for early pregnancy diagnosis, 65 days for fetal sexing, and again right before dry off. The best images I collected came from seven different pregnancies; five for fetal aging and two for fetal sexing. The video is of a twin pregnancy at 39 days in which both fetuses are in the same uterine horn with a visible twin line.
After some practice with the ultrasound, I was able to utilize the fetal aging tool on the IMV Go Scan app. This was particularly helpful for a veterinarian in training as I was able to compare the measurement markers to the breeding date written by the farmer (image 1_markers and video 1_still). However, some of the dairy farms had early pregnancies around 28-29 days, which did not appear when the measurement tool was used (image 1_markers). For those that don’t have measurement markers (collected from saved videos), I was able to use the grid and the BCF Farm Animal App to measure fetal size (images 4 and 6) or crown to nose length for second pregnancy checks (image 5) to accurately age the fetus. This method was especially helpful on shorter herd checks where I didn’t have enough time to utilize the measurement tools on the IMV Go Scan app. Images 2 and 3 were fetal sexing around day 65 of gestation. Image 2 was of a male where the genital tubercle was near the umbilical cord and Image 3 was of a female where the genital tubercle was below the tail.
Overall, I learned a great deal from this experience and appreciate the opportunity to explore this technology.
Images were collected to show the presence of the genital tubercle location to determine sex. I was also able to obtain a single measurement to approximate gestational age. In Figure 1a and 1b, structures present include uterus, amniotic vesicle, and fetus with hindlimbs visualized. In Figure 1a, we are able to locate the genital tubercle at the arrow. The location of the genital tubercle determines that the sex of the fetus is a male. In Figure 1b, a trunk diameter measurement was obtained at 14.2 mm. This puts our gestational age at roughly 53 days. With that being said, the gestational age corresponded exactly with the farmer’s breeding date. Both anterior and posterior limbs were present, as well as the spinal column and ribs. In both Figure 1a and 1b, the image captured outlines the amniotic sac which is demarcated by the red line in Figure 1b. After completing an entire reproductive exam, a corpus luteum was also visualized on ultrasound (not pictured) as well as palpated on rectal examine. A small mouse-size fetus was palpable on rectal palpation.
A single image was collected on a multiparous beef cow, that was turned out with the herd bull. Farmer was interested in knowing gestational age as well as fetal sex. Unfortunately, with the measurement obtain, it is too early to determine fetal sex. The structures present in this image include: uterus, amniotic vesicle, fetus with umbilicus and head present. A single measurement of crown-rump length (CRL) was obtained. With the CRL measurement of 23.5mm, the gestational age was approximated at 42 days. This age corresponded with the dates that the bull had been turned out with. A corpus luteum was also present on ultrasound (not pictured) and on rectal palpation. On rectal palpation, an enlarged uterine horn was present with a positive fetal-membrane slip.
Since I was able to obtain a good image of the fetus in an entirety, I had considered grabbing more measurements such as head length and trunk diameter. On that note, I felt that the accuracy would have greatly decreased because of the young gestational age. With the young gestational age, I was very gentle with the probe and general rectal palpation to ensure to attachments were disbanded.
Multiple images were extracted for Figures 3a, 3b, and 3c. Starting with determining gestational age, turn your attention to Figure 3a. In this figure, a single measurement of trunk diameter was obtained. The measurement of 22.2mm estimates the gestational age to be at 69 days. The fetal age of 69 days corresponded with the farmer’s breeding date. With the positioning of the fetus, I was unable to obtain any further measurements to predict gestational age. In Figure 3a, the structures present include the fetus, the uterus, amniotic vesicle, and the outline of the rib cage.
Moving onto fetal sexing, I will refer to Figures 3b and 3c. Figure 3b is a scanning video of the fetus. I opted to obtain a video due to the complexity of determining the sex of the fetus. After reviewing the video, I was able to get a snapshot of the genital tubercle, which is discernable in Figure 3c by the red arrow. With that being said, I have determined that the sex of this fetus is a female. On a female fetus, the genital tubercle is located adjacent to the tail, while in the male fetus it is neighboring the umbilicus. In Figure 3b, the structures that are apparent are the uterus, the fetus, umbilicus, amniotic vesicle, as well has hind limbs and genital tubercle.
On rectal palpation, a large mouse size fetus was palpable within the left uterine horn. There was also presence of a corpus luteum (not pictured) on ultrasound and rectal palpation.
A single image was collected from a primiparous beef cow. Previously diagnosed pregnant on rectal palpation, ultrasound was still recommended to ensure the presence of viable fetus and confirmation of gestational age. A lone measurement was obtained due to the nature of the fetus. A trunk diameter was taken at 42.2mm, estimated the gestation age to be 93 days. With the size and positioning of the fetus, further imaging for additional measurments and sexing was difficult for myself, but not impossible. In figure 4, the structures present include the uterus, the fetus, the outline of the ribcage, and presence of developing internal organs within the fetus.
On rectal palpation, further confirmation was performed. A crown to nose measurement was taken using 3 fingers – estimating about 55mm, also confirming a gestational age of roughly 90 days. A rat size fetus was palpable as well as cotyledons.
Multiple images were obtained from a multiparous beef cow to determine fetal sex and gestational age. Figure 5a has a much different positioning than Figure 5b and 5c. In Figure 5a, I was able to obtain a crown to nose measurement or a head length measurement that was 25.7mm, estimating a gestational age of 64 days. In Figure 5c, although a different position, a trunk diameter measurement (red line) can be taken measuring about 20mm estimating gestational age at 65 days. The advantage of getting multiple views of the fetus is taking multiple measurements to ensure I’m predicting the correct fetal age. These dates corresponded with the farmer’s breeding date.
Figures 5b and 5c allow me to determine the sex of the fetus. Again, I obtained a scanning video of the fetus in Figure 5b to determine the sex. After reviewing the video, I acquired a snapshot of the fetus, highlighting the genital tubercle in Figure 5c – demarcated by the orange arrow. In Figures 5b (with careful watch) and 5c, I am able to determine the sex of the fetus is a male by the location of the genital tubercle visual between the hindlimbs.
In all Figures, the structures visual include the uterus, amniotic vesicle, fetus, and organs ranging from head to limbs. On rectal palpation, a palpable mouse-size fetus is present.